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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| January-February  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 13, 2017

 
 
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ARTICLES
Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity and analgesic properties of aqueous extract of flueggea virosa's root in rats
JOC Ezeonwumelu, EK Matuki, AM Ajayi, AG Okoruwa, JK Tanayen, CP Adiukwu, ADT Goji, S Dare, CO Okonkwo, F Byarugaba
January-February 2013, 5(1):15-21
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210519  
Introduction: Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae and grows wild in tropical Africa and most parts of the world; but can also be domesticated. Different parts of the plant have been claimed to have many folkloric usages for treatment of diverse ailments. Therefore, the aqueous extract of the Flueggea virosa's root was investigated to ascertain its total yield, phytochemical components, acute toxicity and analgesic activity in groups of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Extraction was by the locally employed decoction method. Phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. Acute toxicity was evaluated by the modified Lorke's method in one phase and analgesic activity was tested using Tail-Flick and Formalin models using rats. Results: The percentage yield of the extract was 9.1%. Tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars were evident. Acute toxicity tests indicated that it is generally safe; with piloerection observed at high doses only. The extract showed a statistically significant (p<0.05), dose-dependent inhibition of pain in formalin test and some level of nonstatistically significant and non-dose dependent pain reduction in tail-flick test at 100-400mg/kg of body weight given orally. Conclusion: Flueggea virosa root produces modest yield of extract and possesses potent phytochemicals, some measure of acute safety and significant analgesic properties.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2 358 56
VIEW POINT
Call for multinational studies of the epidemiology of congenital heart disease in the Arab world
Elhadi H Aburawi
January-February 2013, 5(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210518  
Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the commonest congenital anomaly worldwide representing nearly one third of all congenital malformations presenting in the neonatal period. Arabs have a high fertility rates and they are liable to have more children with congenital defects including CHD. High rates of consanguineous marriages may increase rates of congenital and genetic anomalies. No reliable statistics exist and assumption that the incidence of congenital defects in the Arab world being greater than the rest of the world is only anecdotal. It is therefore crucial and timely to have a multinational and multicenter study of the incidence of CHD in the Arab world. Creation of cross the Arab world multinational congenital cardiac defects registry program and stratification is essential prerequisite to develop good pediatric cardiac services. Over the last two decades, some Arab countries have already started their pediatric cardiac programs. The author call upon other countries to follow suit and learn from their experiences.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 361 66
ARTICLES
The impact of vitamin E supplementation on urinary bladder contractility in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Marwa A Ahmed, Asmaa F Hassan, Omyma G Ahmed
January-February 2013, 5(1):4-14
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210523  
Background: To determine whether vitamin E protects streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats from diabetic urinary bladder dysfunction and discover its possible mechanism. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (A), a diabetic group (B), a group given vitamin Eonly (C), and a diabetic group given vitamin E therapy for 8 weeks (D). Diabetes was induced in the rats by 65 mg/kg streptozosin (STZ) via an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Vitamin E was given in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day i.p. Under urethane anaesthesia (1.2 g/kg) subcutaneously and decapitation, contractile responses to carbachol of detrusor strips in all groups were studied in vitro. The levels of nitrite, nitrate, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were detected in bladder tissues homogenates. Apoptosis studies were performed by detection of the levels of caspase 3 and cell death detection. Results: The bladder weights were significantly increased (p<0.001) in diabetic groups compared to the other studied groups. Contractile responses to carbachol increased in the diabetic group more than in the other groups (p<0.001). Vitamin E improved the contractile responses of group D and improved them but still significantly higher than those of control group (p < 0.05). Vitamin E treatment decreased the tissue MDA, nitrite, nitrate and GSH levels of group D which were significantly higher in group B than A and C groups (p<0.001). All enzyme activities of group B were significantly lower than those of the other groups, although they increased significantly in group D but still lower than those of A and C groups. However, no significant differences were detected between the levels of GPx and SOD of group D and those of A and C groups. Conclusions: These data suggest that vitamin E supplementation may be beneficial in delaying the progression of diabetic dysfunction in experimental animal model.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 304 63
Reporting of cancer-related fatigue in palliative care journals
Senthil P Kumar, Krishna Prasad
January-February 2013, 5(1):22-30
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210520  
Introduction: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a highly prevalent symptom in patients with cancer. Palliative care clinical practice depends upon an evidence-based decisionmaking process. We performed a quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative Care journals for their reporting of CRF. Settings and Design: Systematic review of palliative cares journals. Materials and Methods: Twelve palliative care journals were searched for articles with ‘cancer’ in title and ‘fatigue’ in title/abstract of the articles published from 2006-2010. The reporting rates of all journals were compared. The selected articles were categorized into assessment and treatment, and subsequently grouped into original and review articles. The original articles were sub-grouped into qualitative and quantitative studies, and the review articles were grouped into narrative and systematic reviews. Each subgroup in the original articles category was further classified according to study designs. Descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentiles was used. Results: The overall reporting rate among all journals was 1.04% (38/3634), and Am J Hosp Palliat Care (AJHPC) had highest reporting rate of 1.98% (9/454), followed by Palliat Med (PM) with 1.85% (10/538), and Indian J Palliative Care (IJPC) with 1.69% (1/59). Conclusions: The overall reporting rate for CRF articles in palliative care journals was very low and there were very few randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews found. The study findings indicate a lack of adequate evidence base for CRF.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 313 44
Serum adiponectin level in children with nephrotic syndrome in relation to right ventricular functions and metabolic profiles
Asmaa F Hassan, Kotb A Metwalley
January-February 2013, 5(1):31-38
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210521  
Background: Adiponectin (ADPN), a protein hormone (cytokine), is exclusively expressed on and secreted from adipocytes. It is a particularly interesting compound because it may have a protective influence on the cardiovascular system. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate serum ADPN level, right ventricular functions and metabolic profiles among children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and asses the correlations between ADPN as a protective hormone and each of right ventricular functions and metabolic profiles. Patients and Methods: A total of 47 children (28 boys; 19 girls) with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) were studied. They included two groups: Group A: included 25 children with SRNS in relapse. Group B: included 22 children with SRNS in remission for periods ranging from 3-9 months. A control group included 28 children with matched age and sex. Methods: Serum level of ADPN was estimated by ELISA and nitric oxide (NO) by chemical detection. In addition to total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, and albumin by Enzymatic Colorimetric kits. Also, 24-hour urine samples were collected for detection of proteinuria. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography measuring right ventricular wall functions were done. Results: Serum levels of ADPN and NO were significantly higher in children with SRNS in relapse in comparison with children with SRNS in remission or control group. Children with SRNS in relapse showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and proteinuria while significantly lower levels of total protein, albumin and HDL as compared with SRNS in remission or control group. Echocardiographic findings revealed that a significant decrease in right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF %) and significant increase in right ventricular end diastolic diameter (RVEDD), right ventricular peak pressure (RVPP) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were found in cases with SRNS in relapse in comparison to cases with SRNS in remission and control hypertrophy in relapsed cases. Finally, in children with SRNS in relapse it was found that serum ADPN level was significantly positively correlated with each of serum NO, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, proteinuria, RVEDD, RVPP and PAP, while significantly negatively correlated with serum total protein, albumin and RVEF%. Conclusion: During relapse of SRNS, serum ADPN level is higher than its level in SRNS in remission. This higher level may represent a physiologic response to the altered metabolic profiles and right ventricular strain so as to minimize cardiovascular complications.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 309 49
CASE REPORTS
A 36 year old woman with “difficult-to-treat” hypertension: Endocrine or resistant hypertension?
Alaaeldin M Bashier, Fatheya F Al Awadi, Puja Murli Thadani, Azza Abdulaziz Khalifa
January-February 2013, 5(1):39-44
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210522  
A thirty six year old Emirati female who had had hypertension for 5 years is presented. Her blood pressure has been consistently above 160/110 mmHg, despite being treated with more than 5 antihypertensive drugs. Work up for secondary hypertension was repeatedly negative locally and at two world-renowned endocrine units in London. Ultimately, she underwent “catheter guided renal sympathectomy”, which resulted in good blood pressure control readily achievable on single antihypertensive agent. The diagnostic and management challenges of the case are presented and the efficacy of the therapeutic procedure in treating resistant hypertension is discussed. We also appraise the evidence-base for potential place of this procedure in the current guidelines for management of hypertension.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 313 49
Basic body awareness in postnatal depression: A case study
Subhash Khatri, Komal B Kubavat
January-February 2013, 5(1):45-49
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210524  
Currently, there is limited evidence that a physiotherapy intervention may reduce depressive symptoms as well as the conventional interventions of medications and psychotherapy. We describe the effect of basic body awareness, a form of physiotherapy intervention, on the physical and psychological well-being of a 32 year old mother with postnatal depression. After six weeks of basic body awareness intervention, there was considerable reduction in her depressive symptoms, thus enhancing physical and psychological well-being. Hence, we propose that basic body awareness may be considered as an adjunct to the management of postnatal depression.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 330 56
QUIZ
Stillborn twins at 26 weeks of gestation
Basil M Kahwash, Samir B Kahwash
January-February 2013, 5(1):50-51
DOI:10.4103/1947-489X.210525  
A 42 year-old woman with a twin pregnancy presented at 26 weeks of gestation with vaginal bleeding. There was no fetal movement detected and delivery was induced. Photograph of the stillborn twins is presented and a question on the most likely diagnosis is posed. An answer and a short explanation are provided.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 308 53