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ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-21

Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity and analgesic properties of aqueous extract of flueggea virosa's root in rats


1 Department of Clinical Biopharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Kampala International University Western Campus; Kampala International University Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research (KIUCAMRES) Group, Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
2 Department of Clinical Biopharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Kampala International University Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
3 Kampala International University Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research (KIUCAMRES) Group, Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda
4 Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Nnewi Campus, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
5 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science & Technology, Mbarara, Uganda

Correspondence Address:
JOC Ezeonwumelu
Department of Clinical Biopharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Kampala International University Western Campus; Kampala International University Complementary and Alternative Medicine Research (KIUCAMRES) Group, Western Campus, Ishaka, Bushenyi
Uganda
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1947-489X.210519

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Introduction: Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae and grows wild in tropical Africa and most parts of the world; but can also be domesticated. Different parts of the plant have been claimed to have many folkloric usages for treatment of diverse ailments. Therefore, the aqueous extract of the Flueggea virosa's root was investigated to ascertain its total yield, phytochemical components, acute toxicity and analgesic activity in groups of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Extraction was by the locally employed decoction method. Phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. Acute toxicity was evaluated by the modified Lorke's method in one phase and analgesic activity was tested using Tail-Flick and Formalin models using rats. Results: The percentage yield of the extract was 9.1%. Tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars were evident. Acute toxicity tests indicated that it is generally safe; with piloerection observed at high doses only. The extract showed a statistically significant (p<0.05), dose-dependent inhibition of pain in formalin test and some level of nonstatistically significant and non-dose dependent pain reduction in tail-flick test at 100-400mg/kg of body weight given orally. Conclusion: Flueggea virosa root produces modest yield of extract and possesses potent phytochemicals, some measure of acute safety and significant analgesic properties.


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